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חוש הטעם: תכונות, מאפיינים והשלכות, ליאת ירון

<p dir = "RTL"> <span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> Liat Yaron, </ span>
<span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> MSc. Food technology research internship sensory </ span>
<span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> CEO of TNS / Teleseker-meters, advanced sensory studies </ span> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> sweet, sour, bitter and salty. it almost everything </ strong> <strong> – </ strong> <strong> unless you add the so-called "point of fifth", which is nationality. these experiences </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> basic we experience when the food product enters the oral cavity, and came into contact with the organelles taste </ strong> <strong>. </ strong> <strong>
</ strong> <strong> acceptable </ strong > <strong> </ strong> <strong> treat sense of taste as to serve the individual during the evolutionary roles of a survival: taste </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> sweet human flesh available energy reaches enter it. If this salty – may reach the mouth, </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> delivery of important minerals. If sour – there is a possibility of fruit immature cause pain </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> belly … if Mr. – this may be the beginning of a toxic product interaction </ strong> <strong>. </ strong> <strong>
</ strong> <strong> taste </ strong> <strong> – </ strong> <strong> Whisper key food? No lack of interaction with other senses </ strong> <strong> !!! </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> taste, as well as olfactory components along the so-called chemical senses. Taste is the ability to respond to molecules and ions dissolved (dissolution becomes saliva), in contrast to the sense of smell molecules reacts volatile, airborne.
Sweet, sour, bitter and salty. This is almost everything – unless you add the so-called "fifth taste", which is the savory taste, taste is difficult to define verbally, and represents the kind of taste that make salts of glutamic acid (as monosodium glutamate). These are the basic experiences we experience when the food product (or other) entered into the oral cavity, and came into contact with the organelles of taste. You can feel each Thursday, or a combination of some of them – but unlike the sense of sight, where a pair of primers can create an entirely new color, the sense of taste basic tastes only "mixed" together. They may influence each other's power (oppression, or synergism) but not to create something new. The enormous diversity of the world have "reasons" beyond the four (or five) basic largely responsible for the sense of smell, as well as other senses will be shown later, and did not taste itself. The precise term to describe all the reasons beyond the basics is the "flavors".
Common to refer sense of taste as to serve the individual during the evolutionary roles of a survival: a sweet taste for human flesh available energy reaches enter it. If it's from – may reach the mouth, the supply of important minerals. If sour – there is an option of fruit will cause abdominal pain because … if Mr. – this may be the beginning of an interaction with a toxic product. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Snstziim people are completely normal </ strong > <strong> </ strong> <strong> mentally. they also tend to have mental skills better than average, such as memory </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> great. man capable of synesthesia able to describe, for example, , The Sound of Music particular as taste </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> specific, or </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> something sweet makes him see the color blue / purplish </ strong> <strong>, </ strong> <strong> or, to see the color red will feel some smell </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> language – site </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> sense </ strong>
language, and its connections with the brain, are the main means available to us to determine which flavor is determined. Just looking at the mirror tongue extended outward and visible lumps somewhat prominent: These are H"fafilot "(papillae). Taste cells are organized in special structures called taste buds. Taste buds are concentrated on language structures called Fafilot.
Taste buds are onion-like structure bodies, which are composed of 50-100 taste cells. Each cell point of protrusions called microvilli fingers figures, and those leaving pores located at the upper end of the taste cell. Chemicals and food ingredients, known as "Tamnim", dissolve in saliva, and come into contact with the cell through these pores taste. Protein interaction is created through cell-surface receptors, or using proteins, which are ion channels. These interactions cause changes in the electrical taste cells, which generate stimulation send chemical signals that result electrical pulses to the brain.
In a very schematic customary part of the tongue Zones specialize in ", as the front is more sensitive to sweetness, the sides of the front marinate, the inner sides more sour and the back – Mr. However, it is important to understand that this is a kind of precise geographical map, on the contrary: the different taste buds, as members of various Hfafilot, scattered throughout the oral cavity (even the upper palate). All buds have the ability to identify each of the basic reasons. The difference, or H"htmhot ", expressed their degree of sensitivity to different tastes. Many studies have shown how nerve-related Whisper respond to each point of a wide spectrum of Tamnim, but able to respond better and more intensely, Ltamnim specific type (1,2). Areas of specialization say the visits into one another, creating areas of overlap fractional them (see Figure 1), with each region, as mentioned, you can feel all the flavors, but the degree of reactivity is different. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong > Figure 1: structure of taste buds language </ strong> <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> M"toami on "to blindness </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> tastes </ strong>
people differ in their degree of sensitivity to the taste – are somewhat overall sensitivity and specific materials for their attention. Known, for example, the phenomenon of "taste blindness" (3). Linda Brtosok (4), who has studied the phenomenon for many, found evidence of correlation between the ability to sense substance called PROP and the number of taste buds on the tongue there. Who feel more strongly material were found, on average, as a greater number of buds. You can divide the population, in terms of the power they feel the material L"toami-on "(supertasters)," average taste "(medium tasters), and to non Taste" (non-tasters). Among the super tasters found in taste buds proliferation tendency, sometimes up to 100 times the amount of nodules in non-tasters, when the average tasters are usually also have an average amount of glomerulosclerosis (5).
Belonging to one of three groups largely depends on individual genetic baggage. Age also plays a role, as common among infants of non-PROP tasting very low, and increases with age. Even sex has to do with that among women there is a higher incidence of tasters-on than among men (6). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> The front of the tongue is more sensitive </ strong> <strong > </ strong> <strong> sweetness, the sides of the front marinate, the more sour the inner rear – Mr </ strong> <strong>. </ strong> <strong> yet </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> This is not a kind of accurate geographical map. Areas of specialization say the visits into each other, while </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> Create zones </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> overlap fractional them when in any area, you can feel </ strong > <strong> </ strong> <strong> all tastes, but if reactivity is different </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL">
<strong> interactions </ strong> <strong> </ strong > <strong> psychic </ strong>
taste interacts closely with the sense of smell. The combination of the flavor of food inserted in the mouth, the aroma is released into the nose while chewing creates an effect called flavor.
The smell, therefore, responsible for a wide range of emotions we tend to call them everyday C"tamim ". In addition, is sometimes even more closely, as in the cases of flavor that can change the ability of olfactory detection. Such an effect has been demonstrated in the work of Dalton (7) which were investigated aroma solutions with a concentration below the threshold sensing. When these solutions are add sucrose, began to feel the smell: the point in this case intensified the odor identification ability.

Sense of sight
in addition to the smell, there are also interactions between taste and other senses. Oversized study conducted in Israel found that the color darker powerful implications for perceptions of different flavors. Numerous studies support a link between the world's color type and intensity and perception of taste. For example, the color is darker drinks affects the perception of a powerful drink higher overall taste, and in some cases having higher sweetness (8,9,10). These consequences of the sense of sight on the taste level Hfrifralit do not work, change the taste cell activity, but a way of decoding mechanism of the brain. Because of this type of interaction depends on the elements of personal experience, that creates a conditional expectation given following the taste of a given color. Similarly influence factors such as cultural and personal consumption habits (11). In studies conducted in Israel has been shown that people tend to perceive color dark beers cost more to have "a stronger taste" of alcohol. This is despite the fact alcohol concentrations were similar products taste it. One can, therefore, be certain that he felt a certain taste, and this feeling is a feeling in the mouth – which stems from fact that the feeling at the reaction of other sense (in this case, the sense of sight) interpreted by the brain in a certain way based on the earlier beliefs were rooted in it, sometimes even unconsciously. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> sense of touch
sense of touch is responsible for a range of sensations directly related to the perception of taste. examples:
§ Blankets, fatty these properties of foods, that are applied by us through the sense of touch , tend to be a suppressor point, namely the presence of flavors are felt weak, mainly due to the masking physical created between the palate and Htamnim product.
§ temperature: when Thai taste meet tincture flavor at low temperature, they react differently than low. soft drinks, for example, are sweet than being chilled (12). experiments other girls at Yale University showed nicely that there are other ways that can temperature affect the taste: heating zone is set to say let people taste sweet (in the absence of flavorings) and cooling caused feelings of salinity or acidity at the front of the tongue, bitter or sourness in the back (13).
§ pain: her neural system responsible mechanism for sensing pain is also used to transfer feelings type: astringent, itching (like soda) and sharpness. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> taste shapes, smell </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> color </ strong>
taste shapes, colors smell … there are people for whom these kind of experiences are everyday experiences. This strange phenomenon has been known for three centuries, but only recently received renewed interest. Today, when the term "interdisciplinary research" occupies a place of honor, awakened great interest in the phenomenon called "synesthesia" (synesthesia) (14). The name is derived from the Greek words syn (together) and Aesthesis (perception) and means "integrated sensing". A man capable of synesthesia able to describe, for example, some music sounds as specific flavor, something sweet and makes him see the color blue / purplish, or see red color feel any smell. Sinstziim have given them words evoke sensory experiences (color, shape, etc.). Known cases of people who described the taste as a form (15).
Synesthesia has been described by a number of celebrities in the arts. The painter Wassily Kandinsky, for example, showed the ability to synesthesia own when listening to Wagner's music played in a concert hall in Moscow. "I saw all the colors these mind, lines stood out in front of me …. "
the phenomenon has been researching early 18th century, when Isaac Newton tried to find a mathematical formula linking vibrations of sounds and different shades of light.
all the people Hsinstziim declare connections between their psychic nature remain constant throughout their lives. Sinstziim surprised to learn that other people are experiencing sound, taste, etc., as they themselves are experiencing the same ((16.
some facts about synesthesia:
§ she moves the family
§ more common in women: the US is in a ratio of 3: 1 ( 17), England are in a ratio of 8: 1 (18).
§ Snstziim people are completely normal mentally. In fact, they also tend to have better than average mental abilities, such as memory Mtzoin- sensory connection actually helps them remember many individual elements than usual.
§ experience synesthesia is completely personalized experience. An example is the famous Russian composer Alexander Scriabin, who has the ability to see color tones, and which has criticized his friend, the composer Rimsky-Korsakov, claiming Shsisntzih the last is "artificial". His argument was that partner Describe the scale F-sharp major, greenish, while S"hri clear that he was purple! "… </ P>
<p dir =" RTL "> <strong> You can divide the population L"toami- on </ strong> <strong> " (supertasters)," </ strong> <strong> average taste </ strong> <strong> "(medium tasters), </ strong> <strong> and to non taste </ strong > <strong> "(non-tasters). </ strong> <strong> super tasters found sometimes up to 100 times </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> quantity of nodules than no taste. Among women the rates </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> more of a taster-on than men </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL">
<strong> Taste and Health </ strong>
because there is a close interaction between the taste smell, damage in one specific times by the person as an attack on both. sometimes people report that they feel their taste decline, when in fact what is impaired sense of smell. vulnerable sense of smell are more common, but also taste itself vulnerable. cells smell may be harmed directly to the viral disease. known that serious head injuries can impair the function of the sense of smell, exposure to volatile certain, and so on (19). vulnerability taste itself occurs when impaired secretion of saliva or injured cells on their own (20). Normogsih (Normogeusia) is the term for sensing taste normal. loss of sense of taste or its weak can come in several grades (21):
§ Hifogsih (Hypogeusia) – reduced sensitivity to taste
§ Disgsih (Dysgeusia) – sensing abnormal / distorted
§ Aliagsih (Aliageusia) – changing the type of flavor is felt
§ Fntogsih (Phantogeusia) – more than normal residual taste
§ Agassi (Ageusia) – lack of flavor.
complete absence is rare, due to the multiplicity and complexity of alternative ways that allow the transfer of taste sensory message. But side Hhifogsih, Diggs and Fntogsih observed in many cases. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> impaired sense of taste can happen as a result: her age, inflammation of the mouth, infection causes a decrease in blood flow to the language and disturbing for the production of saliva, gastric reflux, cases some of diabetes (and other systemic disease), exposure to certain chemicals, such as insecticides, disrupt some of their sentience, poisoning Lead / overexposure to fumes Zinc and copper have been reported to cause metallic taste in the mouth and radiation therapy.
It is important to find modes harm the sense of taste and smell; First, there are cases where an understanding of human sensory status also contributes to the diagnosis of disease states. Furthermore, normal physiology important not only for fun gourmet restaurants – sensory dysfunction reveal the danger of food poisoning (those that can be detected by the senses of taste and smell); And the disappearance of "sensory warning bells" more – such as in situations of fire or gas leak, eating unbalanced or malnutrition due to decreased ability to enjoy the food and more. Shipman, one of the most prominent researchers in general and defects in sensory senses in particular, has recently raised its agenda, its impact on the decrease in the sensitivity of the senses various diseases. For example, she pointed to the connection between the decrease in sensitivity to salt, which leads the individual to want to consume more salt to food, and the difficulty of having high blood pressure Dietitians meet their recommendations regarding diet low in sodium (22,23,24). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> summary </ strong>
taste is a chemical sense, reacting molecules dissolved in saliva, mechanisms specific to each type of taste. Because nerve cells flavor and some are overly sensitive to certain tastes, obtained a specialization, followed by any kind taste better felt in the different language, while still giving some overlap between the regions. Power which we feel is an individual flavors, and you can divide the population L"toami-on "," medium tasters 'and' No taste ". Taste does not work by itself, but is a close interaction with other senses, led by the smell, but also in no small measure color and touch. Some people do not only affect sensory perception but uniquely blending called Snstzih: the ability to feel a form / contact present a particular point of irritation, hearing shapes and so on. Senses of taste and smell can be damaged due to various health conditions, exposure to harmful substances and more. Early diagnosis of the problem is important because the senses are used to a man playing WARNING (toxins of all kinds), and as an aid to maintaining a balanced diet. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> References: </ strong> </ p>
< p dir = "RTL"> 1. Taste B. Lindemann reception. 1996 Rev Phys; 76: 718-66. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 2. Smith DV, St. John SJ. Opinion in Neurobiology Current 1999; 8: (Vol.9 No. 4), 519-27. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 3. Fox AL. Six in ten "tasteblind" to bitter chemical. News Letter 1931 science; 9: 249. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 4. Bartoshuk LM, BEAUCHAMP GK. : Chemical sense. Rev Psychol 1994 Ann; 45: 419-49, </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> 5. Miller IJ, Reedy FE. Variations in the human taste bud density and taste intensity perception. Physiol Behav 1990; 47: 1213-19.

6. Bartoshuk LM, Duffy VB. PTC / PROP tasting: Anatomy, psychophysics and sex effects. 1994 Behav Physiol; 56: 1165-71. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 7. Dalton P, Doolittle N et al. The Merging of Senses: Integration of sub -threshold taste and Smell. Nature Neuroscience, 2001; 3: 431-2. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 8. Roth HA et al. Psychological relationships between perceived sweetness and color in lemon- and lime-flavored drinks. Food Sci 1988 J; 53: 1116-19. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 9. DuBose et al. Effects of colorants and flavorants on identification, perceived flavor intensity, and hedonic quality of fruit-flavored beverages and cake. Food Sci 1980 J; 45: 1393-99,1415, </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> 10. Johnson J. Clydesdale FM. Perceived sweetness and redness in colored sucrose solutions . Food Sci 1982 J; 47: 747-52. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 11. Philisen DH. Consumer age affects response to sensory characteristics of a Cherry flavored Beverage. Food Sci 1995 J; 60: 364-8. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 12. Birch EJ, Brennan J et al. Sensory Properties of Foods. Applied Science in 1977. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL">
13. Cruz A, Green BG. Thermal stimulation of taste. Nature 2000; 403; 889-92. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 14. Baron-Cohen SH, Goldstein JH. Coloured Speech Perception: Is Synesthesia What Happens When Modularity Breaks Down? Perception 1993; 22: 419-26. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 15. Cytowic RE. The Man Who Tasted Shapes: A Bizarre Medical Mystery Offers Revolutionary Insights into Emotion and Consciousness. NY: Putnam in 1993. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL">
16. Cytowic RE, Wood FB. Synesthesia II: Psychophysical Relationships in the Synesthesia of Geometrically Shaped Taste and Colored Hearing. Cognotion 1982 Brain; 1: 36-49. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 17. Cytowic RE. Synesthesia: a Union of the Senses. NY: Springer Verlag 1989. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 18. Schiffman SS. Taste and Smell Losses in Normal Agung and disease. JAMA 1997; 78: 1357-62. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 19. Christensen CM. Role of saliva in human taste perception. In: Clinical management of taste and smell. Neiselman HL, Rivlin RS, editors. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1986, 414. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 20. Norman MM. Management of smell and taste problems'. J Med Cleveland Clinic 2002; 69: 333. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 21. Schiffman SS. Taste and Smell in disease. N Engl J Med 1983; 308: 1275-79. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 22. Schiffman SS. Changes in Taste and Smell in Older Persons. Center Reports on Advances in Research, 1978, 2 (3). University Centre for Duke the Study of Aging and Human Development. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 23. Glezos S. Taste & Smell Loss: Risk for Disease? NIH Record 1997, vol XLIX no. 8. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 24. Deems DA, Doty RL et al. Smell and taste dis- orders, a study of 750 patients from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center. Arch Otolaryngol Head and Neck Surg 1991; 117: 519-28. </ P>

האם השנויים בחושים החלים עם הגיל משפיעים על הצריכה התזונתית ? ד"ר דנית שחר

<p dir = "RTL"> <span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> Dr Danish dawn RD, PhD International Center for Health and Nutrition named Daniel Abraham Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva </ span> <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> What a sensation we feel when we taste chocolate waffles with caramel cream filling our mouths? What reaches our noses smell the chewing process of dark chocolate? Is a child of five would feel these smells and tastes differently from someone age 50?
</ Strong> <strong> in children there is a universal liking sweet foods, food aversion bitter that affect their food selection. Among adults, however, there is a preference not always so clear and consistent. Too fat content menu an impact on the sense of taste and enjoyment of food, as the mechanism northwest of brain activity that includes the secretion of opiates, and is affected by the mass of the body, changes in weight, eating habits, culture and socioeconomic status.
</ Strong> <strong> sense of taste and smell do change with age and may influence decreased food intake in the elderly </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> sensations of taste and smell are linked, as you feel a cold various diseases. Sense of taste is complex and involves a sense of taste and smell combined with other sensory stimuli. These sensations vary with age and affect dietary intake, it will focus on in this article. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Consumer Research found that taste is the main influence on the choice of food eaten (1). Taste including a chemical reaction of olfaction taste and perception of texture in the mouth. Taste and perception related to its influence on the choice of foods eaten and eating habits. Foods containing fat and sugar foods are preferred by most of the public (2) and foods lifts are known to be popular (3). Among children there is affection universal food sweet, hatred Food Mr, which certainly affects the choice of their food. Among adults, however, not always a connection so clear and consistent. even the fat content menu an impact on the sense of taste and enjoyment of food, as the mechanism northwest of brain activity that includes the secretion of opiates, and is affected by the mass of the body, changes in weight, eating habits, culture and socioeconomic status. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> our perception of the senses affect our choice in certain foods, their consumption and ultimately the nutritional status. Drewnowski review article (4) suggest the following mechanism for understanding the relationship between physiology and nutrition; </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> will focus on taste as the responses to the senses similar in terms of the mechanisms of neurological their own, and because whisper taste major influence on the choice of food eaten. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Surprisingly there was no association between the liking for sweets and obesity among children. in comparing normal weight obese people, choose high-fat food oils containing less sugar. among children aged 3-5 fatty food selection was related weight of the parents. Children who choose fatty foods were those whose parents oils </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> changes in taste recovered with age and their impact on food consumption </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = " RTL "> <strong> preference for sweets </ strong> </ p>
<p dir =" RTL "> sensory preference for sweets is personal and universal. Infants show a preference cement sweet birth (5). Children tend to be classified as food Sweet preferred sweetness and strength tests they will choose the most concentrated sucrose solutions (6). Surprisingly not seem to touch the sweet affection and obesity among children. On the one hand oils showed a continued preference for sweets after oral glucose tolerance, signaled insensitive sweets (7), however it turned out, that on this issue there is a high preference among the various oils. Another study examined the effect of food preferences obesity did not find any association between a preference for sweets and fat (8). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Aging is often accompanied by a decrease in sensitivity to sucrose solution, resulting from a decrease in the number of taste buds and probably also decrease their sensitivity. There are teachers that data, that seniors prefer foods high level of sweetness as a result of this reduction in sensitivity. Research conducted recently examined the empowerment and enjoyment of different foods varies sweetness level provided for breakfast, and the effect of the intensity of the pleasure of food selection. 5 were given food served at breakfast: orange juice, jam, yogurt with fruit, cereal and chocolate spread. A comparison was made between the young and old turned out that on average the elderly need a higher level of sweetness to feel the same intensity of sweetness as they felt younger. They preferred a higher sucrose content of their food. However Interestingly, when given by the elderly preferred meal for everyone, they do not eat large amounts of food, and reported a higher level of enjoyment. The researchers explained this interpersonal diversity that existed in the elderly. Overall these data do not show relationship between sensitivity to sweet and consumption of food. Perhaps this is due to other factors that affect food intake such as lifestyle and health preferences. It is also possible population has been in short supply reacted differently. Seniors participated in this study are healthy elderly people, were compared with healthy young adults (9). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Reply fats
</ strong> fat known as an ingredient that adds pleasure associated with eating. The first emotional response to fat is the smell. Fat solvent molecules evaporate and spread the oily smell characteristic cooked food. In the second stage diffused feeling in the mouth in contact with the characteristic texture, and while chewing and swallowing (10). Meat fat molecules could bind water creates a sense of juiciness and tenderness of the meat, for example steak and baked goods such as cakes, too. The heat transmitted through its food contributes to crisp. In general, a high content of fat is considered a factor that enhances the taste and quality of food Although this phenomenon varies to some extent in recent years, due to reduced consumption recommendations of fats. High-fat foods are often also high in sugar, and therefore not clear whether the strong desire is sweet or fat. In comparing normal weight obese people, choose high-fat food oils containing less sugar. Among children aged 3-5 fatty food selection was related weight of the parents. That is, children who choose fatty foods were those whose parents oils. These findings indicate perhaps that preferences for food oil also has a familial component and gene (11). <Strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> With age decreases fat intake, probably due to medical recommendations, making it difficult to distinguish between the sensory and fatty food consumption, affected health recommendations. Various nutrition surveys, including those conducted in the country, was found to lower consumption of fat in the elderly population, including cutting the fatty components of meat and eat chicken without the skin. In a recent study examined the issue of the factors affecting the consumption of low-fat cookies among young people and the elderly. Among the elderly (over 65) admission of low-fat cookie was dependent on taste and texture, as well as its impact on their health. Among young people (18-40), the main consideration was the effect on weight. That is among the elderly consideration all the taste and health among young people concern the weight alone (12). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Another study, conducted by Schiffman, again compared the young (average age 22), elderly (mean age 82) in terms of the reaction of the hedonic mixture of fat / sugar mixture of fat / salt drink milk (13). both groups rated the intensity of the flavors in a similar manner, but scaling tunes related to the mix was different. among young fat content affected the rating pleasantness of food in both mixtures, compared this older population did not affect fat content. the authors concluded that, in fact, seniors can reduce or increase the amount of fat eaten by them without affecting the pleasure associated with food. of course this is a laboratory-level findings and therefore there is no real answer to the issue of eating low-fat foods by seniors with high frequency (30-40%), low intake of calories and other nutrients. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Salt lust
</ strong> sense saltiness of food known to be affected greatly by age. Among seniors reported reduced sensitivity to salt and excessive use of salt added to food. Despite the reduced salt sensitivity was asked whether a different salt intake in the elderly. The study, by the Rolls and friends (14), were compared with a group of young and old chicken soup in terms of their response to different levels of salinity. This research also is upgrading intensity was lower salinity by the elderly. In other words, these were less sensitive to the feeling of salinity. However, the assessment nutritionally complete and detailed, it turned out that the elderly were not consume more salt from young people, due to their ads for their health. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Changes to smell applying with age and their impact on food consumption
</ strong> changes that occur with age sense of smell more dramatic changes are occurring in taste. Age affects sensitivity to odors both in terms of identification and in terms of empowerment. The essential question in this regard is whether these changes in sense of smell affect nutritional intake. <Strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> To assess the impact of the decline in the sense of smell on dietary intake study was conducted among 80 women aged 65-93. Antrofomtriim measures were examined, as well as eating habits through food diaries and questionnaires habits. About 50% of women had a greater decrease in olfactory function, but these findings had nothing to do with weight and BMI (15) – the sense of smell disorder did not affect the appetite or the pleasure of eating (16,17). However <span style = "text-decoration: underline;"> For those with disorders sense of smell was less interest in activities related to food such as cooking, eating a variety of foods, preference is reduced to healthy food preference or undue foods, sweet and fatty </ span>. The researchers suggest, then, that people who suffer from the sense of smell prepare food using other senses their meaning will cheerleaders taste, texture and raises others. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Sensory specific Satiety </ strong> <strong> and the level of diversity of the menu
</ strong> satiety and satisfaction with food stems from satisfying the senses by the amount eaten and the variety of foods, this feeling, which is actually integration of senses and sensations, is included in the concept of sensory-specific Satiety. normally after eating a particular food reduced sense of pleasant taste, smell and appearance of the food it. Change it in response to hedonic food is called sensory-specific Satiety, and is associated with a decrease in consumption of food already eaten, and the increase in the consumption of foods that have not yet eaten ( "new"). data from surveys Int'l show that decreasing age range of foods and the elderly population suffers from a relatively poor foods (18,19). eating is one of the recommendations diverse basic and most important in order to achieve a healthy diet containing all the nutrients. As and sensory-specific Satiety is one of the mechanisms that encourage diverse eating the belief explanation of the decline in the diversity of food in adulthood based on the fact that with age occurs a decrease in specific Satiety-sensory. <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> study by Dolls and McDermott tested sensory-specific Satiety among four age groups for men and women. The teams included adolescents aged 12-15, young adults aged 22-35, adults aged 45-60 and adults aged 65 and older 82 (20) .sensory-specific satiety decreased with age and was the lowest among those aged 65 and over. The drop is not clear, nor is a direct correlation between the decrease in sensory-specific Satiety and functional impairment of the senses. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Among young people it will increase the variety of foods eaten amount compared to their seniors due to sensory-specific Satiety a relatively low consumption and diversity remain low. The practical implications of the research work are to encourage open and sensory sensitivity to other components such as a sense food texture. For the older population using various types of fabric and a variety of foods that may contribute to increase diversity and improve the nutritional value of the diet as a whole. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> different in this field is very much influenced by social, environmental stimuli and living environment. Found that seniors living in the community often consume more food variety younger population. In contrast, elderly people living in institutions does not consume a varied diet, and consume less food in total. It's about institutions, including the food attractively served and there is a buffet of a variety of foods, dietary intake exceeds the elderly. These data contribute to elderly low economic status are in a fragile state poor. even if they can satisfy the nutrient needs, their inability to buy food appeals to affect eating them. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> sense salty foods known to be affected greatly by age. among seniors reported reduced sensitivity to salt and excessive use of salt added to food. Although sensitivity to reduced salt turned out, the elderly do not consume more salt from young people, due to their ads health </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> the mechanism of pleasure </ strong >
after hearing details of the feelings and senses, conducted so far, we should not forget the pleasure associated with eating. it's a pleasure to the senses broker related course by neurotransmitters or brain peptides (21). Many studies have attempted to examine the issue of pleasure associated with food, engaged in Hsrotonrgit (22). Others have examined the effect of opiate-mediated peptide and pleasant feeling of pleasure associated with eating sweet food or oil. Endogenous opioids or endorphins affect the attraction to certain foods. Attraction sweet, typical of so many people, is associated with control of opiates humans and animals. Opiate antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone reduces food intake by reducing the attraction to certain foods. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> endogenous opiates are also those that create, probably, the disorder of bulimia nervosa and binge eating. Many of patients with ADHD have a passion for foods, sweet and high in fat. providing naloxone changed the preference of the hedonic sweets, thus causing a decrease in consumption of sweet foods and high-fat such as chocolate and candy bars (23). </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> shortages nutritional and taste </ strong>
taste disorders in cases of malnutrition have been associated with a deficiency B3 (niacin) and zinc (24,25), .cc, for example, Hypogeusia associated with a reduction in the concentration of Brooke Gustin. Gustin is the main protein that contains zinc. Henkin and his friends show an association between loss of zinc and Hypogeusia (26). same authors found a decrease in the average concentration of zinc in serum, and increases clearance of zinc in the urine, patients with thermal burns which opened Hypogeusia. in these patients even anorexia tied to Hypogeusia (27). </ p >
<p dir = "RTL"> common diseases in the population of the elderly, such as Alzheimer's and taking multiple medications [Polypharmasia], may also cause changes in taste. among the elderly who receive drugs for a long time, 11% complained about Ageusia <strong> < / strong> or <strong> </ strong> Dysgeusia (28). Interestingly, the high prevalence of these disorders in women. Perhaps due to the fact that women are taking more medications long-term. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> food preferences among children </ strong>
Studies show that the preference of young children before the school is due to their knowledge of the food and sweetness . Oil acquired food preference probably in the early stages of life, so that children learn to prefer foods with caloric density and high fat content. Preference for sweet foods and sugar consumption decreases from adolescence into adulthood, but all of these findings are based on cross-sectional studies, which are not followed over the years to the same person. Take into account that preferences do not stem only from the senses. The choice also reflects a social relationship, perception of environmental health, etc. Children also show Mr. rejection of food including caffeine, wine and spicy food. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> summary
</ strong> senses influential and diverse the needs and preference of different foods. However, it is difficult to isolate the impact and cut it off from the effects of cultural and environmental, as well as the accompanying feeling conciliatory posture, which is individual people or the environment. Among American children sandwich H"aidiali "in terms of flavor is peanut butter and jelly sandwich. In contrast, among the children of Israel the ultimate sandwich this is actually smeared with chocolate. This difference is also indicative of the difference in cultural and environmental related food choices. <Strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> sensations of taste and smell decreases with age and may affect decreased food intake. Drop eating pleasure and monotonous, which further reduces the amount of food eaten. Among the elderly if it appears, we recommend that reinforce flavor to strengthen the sense of taste and sensitivity to foods "toxic", as the sense of taste is a factor preventing poisonings due recognition tastes bitter and metallic. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> References </ strong> <strong>: </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> 1. Food Marketing Institute.1996. Trends in the United States: Consumer Attitudes and the Supermarket. Chicago: Food Marke-ting Inst. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 2. Drewnowski A. 1987. Fats and food texture: sensory and hedonic evaluations. In Food Texture, ed. HR Moskowitz, 1: 217-50. New York: Marcel Dekker. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 3. Rozin P, Vollmecke TA. Food likes and dislikes. Rev Nutr 1986 Annu; 6: 433-56. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 4. Drewnowski A .. Taste preferences and food intake . Rev Nutr 1997 Annu; 17: 237-53. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 5. Steiner JE. 1977. Facial expressions of the neonate infant indicating the hedonics of food-related chemical stimuli. In The Genesis of Sweet Preference. USHEW, DHEW Publ no. (NIH) 77-1068, ed. JM Weiffenbach, pp. 173-89. Washington, DC: NIH. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 6. Grinker JA, Price JM, Greenwood MRC . 1976. Studies of taste in childhood obesity. Hunger In: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications, ed. D Novin, W Wyrwicka, GA Bray , pp. 441-57. New York: Raven. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 7. Cabanac M, Duclaux R.Obesity: absence of satiety aversion to sucrose. 1970 Science; 168: 496-97. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 8. Drewnowski A. 1986. Sweetness and obesity. In Sweetness. ILSI Nutr. Found. Symp., Ed. J Dobbing. Berlin: Springer. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 9. Rolls BJ. Do chemosensory changes influence food intake in the elderly? Behavior 1999 Physio; 66 (2): 193-7. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 10. Brandt MS, EZ Skinner, JA Coleman .. Texture profile method. <em> J. Food Sci </ em> in 1963; 28: 404-9. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 11. Fisher JO, Birch JL. Fat preferences and fat consumption of 3- to 5-year-old children are related to parent adiposity. <em> Am Diet Assoc J </ em> 1995; 95: 759-64. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> 12. Castellanos VH, Rolls BJ. Acceptance of reduced-fat foods in the elderly. Appetite 1997; 29: 390 <sub>'re </ sub> 1. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 13. Warwick S, Schiffman SS. Sensory evaluations of fat-sucrose and fat -salt mixtures: Relationship to age and weight status. 1990 Behav Physiol; 48: 633 <sub>'re </ sub> 6. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 14. Drewnowski A ,. Henderson SA, Driscoll A, Rolls BJ. Salt taste perceptions and preferences are unrelated to sodium consumption in healthy older adults. J Am Diet. 1996 Assoc; 96: 471 <sub>'re </ sub> 4. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 15. Duffy VB, Backstrand JR, Ferris AM . Olfactory dysfunction and related nutritional risk in free -living, elderly women. Am Diet Assoc J 1995; 95: 879 <sub>'re </ sub> 84. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 16. Madeira K, Goldman A. Some aspects of sensory properties of food that relate to food habits and associated problems of elderly consumers. Elderly 1989 Nutr J; 8: 3 <sub>'re </ sub> 24. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 17. Krondl M, Lau D ,. Yurkiw MA, Coleman PH. Food use and perceived food meanings of the elderly. Am Diet Assoc J 1982; 80: 523 <sub>'re </ sub> 9. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 18. Shahar DR, Shai I, Vardi H , Fraser D. Dietary intake and eating patterns of elderly people in Israel: Who is at nutritional risk? J Clin Nutr Euro 2002; In press. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 19. Fanelli MT, Stevenhagen KJ. Characterizing consumption patterns by food frequency methodologies: Core foods and variety of foods in diets of older Americans. Am Diet Assoc J 1985; 85: 1570 <sub>'re </ sub> 6. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 20. Rolls BJ, McDermott TM. Effects of age on sensory-specific satiety . J Clin Nutr Am 1991; 54: 988 <sub>'re </ sub> 96. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 21. USDA.1995. Nutrition & Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Home and Garden Bulletin No. Washington 232, DC: USDA102. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 22. Wurtman JJ .. The involvement of brain serotonin in excessive carbohydrate snacking by obese carbohydrate cravers. <em> Am Diet Assoc J </ em> 1984; 84: 1004-7. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> 23. Drewnowski A, Krahn DD, Demitrack MA , Nairn K, Gosnell BA. Naloxone, an opiate blocker, reduces the consumption of sweet high-fat foods in obese and lean female binge eaters. <em> J Clin Nutr Am </ em> 1995; 61: 1206-12. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> 24. Green RF. Subclinical pellagra and idiopathic hypogeusia. JAMA 1971; 218: 1303. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 25. Rundles RW. Zinc deficiency, taste acuity and growth failure. Rev Nutr </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> 1978; 36: 213-4. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 26. Henkin RI, Graziadei PPG, Bradley DF . Molecular basis, of the taste and its </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> disorders. Ann Intern Med 1969; 71: 791-821. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 27. Cohen K, Schechter PJ, Henkin RI. Hypogeusia, anorexia, and altered zinc </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> metabolism Following thermal burn. 1973 JAMA; 223: 914-16. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 28. Stevens JC, Cruz LA, Hoffman JM, Patterson MQ. Taste sensitivity and aging: high incidence of decline revealed by repeated threshold measures. Chem Senses 1995; 20: 451-9. </ P>

גישה חדשנית לפיתוח מוצרי מזון המבוססת על שימוש במידע חושי והתייחסותי, פרופ' דם שגיא, Howard Moskowitz

<p dir = "RTL"> <span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> I.s Guy Moskowitz H.r 1 and 2 </ span> <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL" > 1 Institute of Biochemistry, food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of agricultural, food and Environmental quality Sciences, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
2 member Moskowitz-Jacobs, White Plains, NY </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> choosing foods by consumers affected by </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> variety of factors. The sensory aspect is considered as one of the most important factors influencing the choice of food </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> before health considerations, or other factors. Therefore, when developing or improving a product in the food industry </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> It is important to analyze and apply the information from the sensory realm. Analysis of SI, which is a tool </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> necessary in all development processes, combining methods for quantifying the reception at the planning stage with measures of sensory </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> When and after eating </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> choosing food – process </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> complex </ strong>
food choices by consumers is a complex process involving cognitive and sensory elements. Cognitive factors relate to a person's access to food and the way in which the marketer / advertiser describes the product media. Sensory factors relate to the experience of the consumer product during and after eating. The last five decades have been studied patterns of choice, preference and acceptability of food. There are many models help to explain the process of selection of different foods. Several studies have focused on examining personal attitudes and beliefs of consumers in order to study the variety of factors affecting (1). It was found that the sensory perception of food properties influenced by physiological addition to accessing and consumer's personal faith (2). Another study (3) showed that the main factors affecting food selection were: the food itself (the physical properties and composition), individual (beliefs, values and habits acquired due to prior experience) and Environment Economy and Society (attitudes towards the sensory properties of food and its contribution to health). A more recent study (4) showed that selecting foods in general affected by three components; Experience effects (ideals, personal factors, resources, and social framework for food contact) and personal values (perceptions, financial considerations, comfort, health and nutrition, relationship management and product quality). These studies indicate that the food selection is a combination of a variety of variables, not a single factor. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Culture
Culture is one of the main factors influencing the choice of food (5). While that most studies have examined the relationship between food choices and positions taken place in the specific cultural, few studies have examined the differences between the behavior of references and different countries (6). For example, the five major reasons set out in choosing food among all European Union member states were (7): quality / freshness, price, taste, attempt to eat healthy, and 'what my family wants to eat ". </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Gender
Gender man is a significant factor that affects the choice of food. In many studies, women than men expressed more positive attitudes toward foods that are low in fat (9), healthy eating (8, 10-12), and a more negative attitude towards foods and diets high in fat (3, 13-14). Moreover, women took to the quality of primary prevention. On the other hand, men rated their taste as the primary motive (8). Interestingly, the species surveyed have a greater impact on food choices than national belonging. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> aspects of sensory
aspects sensors (including appearance, aroma, flavor [combination of taste and smell], and texture) are generally considered The main factors in choosing the food, followed by health considerations and other factors (3,13,15-16). Found that the flavor can be used as an index for predicting food intake (17) and hedonic preference for predicting consumption of high-fat foods number (16). Sensory satisfaction, especially taste, emerged as the most important influences on intake of fruits and vegetables (14). Taste the product rated as far more important than health-related characteristics (19). It was found that the taste is the sole criterion used in the decision to purchase a particular food. Despite reported that health and taste can be used as predictors of important acceptance and intentions of purchase of the product, it only studies a few have been studied these effects (factors of taste and health) at the same time. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> longing for food < / strong>
longing (in this) is set to crave to food (20-24). Many theories attempt to explain the basis of longing. According to the most widely held theory, the longing to have a role Bhomaostzis (homeostasis) and she wakes up in response to nutrient deficiency or calories (25). Has been suggested that longing is affected by neurochemical variables, such as levels of endogenous opioids or serotonin levels in the brain (26-27). In addition, it was suggested that the situation affects hormonal longing for food during pregnancy and during menstruation (28-31). These studies have shown a significant relationship between the menstrual cycle and the craving for chocolate and sweets (31). However, not identified a specific mechanism explaining the link between longing and reproductive status. According to other mechanisms proposed argued that represents longing conditioned responses to environmental conditions in which food is eaten (32-33). In some cases, it is possible that longing can benefit nutritionally. For example, during monotonous diets reported an increase yearning that made the encouragement of diversity nutrition (34). This can be particularly important for elderly people with weak appetite disorders (35-36).
Recently, the concept of longing for food, for which chocolate is a primary example, has received considerable attention, both in the media (37) and literature (31, 38 41). The explanations craving for chocolate and other foods varied and still controversial (42-44). Craving for food experienced in 60-97% of the respondents, depending on the type of food being tested (31,41,45). Craving for chocolate or other foods, was discovered as an expression of appetite tight caused by starvation, resulting from repeated experiences where food yearned eaten (46). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Effect senses the longing
factors sensors may affect the longing in two ways at least. First, longing may occur following exposure to sensory properties of food (47-48). "Mark's response" such as the one discussed in the context of drug literature. Secondly, longing can arise from a lack of exposure or cognitive sensory characteristics of food (22). Therefore conditional yearning certain environmental markers caused by chemical changes in the brain (32). There is another possibility that hormones Shltiim primary role in lowering the threshold craving for food. Despite much interest and importance yearning for its nutritional potential, there is a lack of information about the longing for food among the elderly. According to the information available it appears that the craving for food decreases with age (20). In view of the increase in the elderly population and the increased risk and dietary restrictions (36), should be included in this age group test of eating behaviors. It should be emphasized that with age, decreased sense of taste (49) and the sense of smell (50). Diminished sense of smell can influence the aroma of the food, and thus create less irritation longing. Alternatively, a decrease in stimulation can increase the craving for the same stimulus can not be experienced more (20).
Numerous reports show that diet does not increase the craving for food (41,51). Women reported a yearning for chocolate and sweets significantly more than men. However, with age, craving for sweets decreases in women. Interestingly yearning tends to occur mainly in the early evening (20). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL">
<strong> Choosing food – Aspects </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> Health </ strong>
recently has been studied the effect of health factors and taste the food choices. Developed a special scale that measures the importance of health and taste aspects of food selection process (6,12,52). The scale is based on a set of statements ranging from "I do not agree at all" and up to "strongly agree", and is divided into three sub-categories on health care (general interest in health products reduced-calorie, natural products) and three sub-groups related to taste (longing foods fresh, use in food As a reward and pleasure).
despite worrying about health, sensory gratification is often more important. For example, the purchasing intentions of corn chips were attributed to the level of affection and a number of product sensory features, such as salinity, corn and oily flavor. Health aspect, which relates to the consumption of fat in the diet, ranked second. These data show that among the population that, despite the growing awareness in order to reduce the fat content in the diet, health still ranks second after taste when it comes to choosing corn chips (53).
For some consumers, health considerations may change the position of the point as a crucial factor in choosing food . Understanding this important conflict of deciphering consumer behavior and market more efficient products which have been modified content / fat composition. Expectations can have a strong influence on consumer tests of sensory judgment, and you can manipulate these expectations by using nutritional labeling (54). When the participants were informed about the fat content in the product, they tended to prefer the low-fat versions, apparently to look more aware of health issues (54). Similar behavior is observed frequently in the country about the sweetness and sugar content. This type of "impression management" can cause a reaction that is not authentic (55), thereby causing inflated the importance of the cause of health when analyzing consumer surveys. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> human species is a significant factor affecting < / strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> choosing foods. In many studies, women took to the quality of primary prevention, while men </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> ranked the taste. Women expressed more favorable attitude toward foods that are low in fat and the eating </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> healthy </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> compared with men </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> important for sensory analysis </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> food </ strong>
As noted, sensing a major role intends to purchase the food product. For example, based on taste tests conducted among US consumers turned out that the decisive criteria in selecting a food product is the taste and health. In a study conducted in the United States nutritional value rated as "very important" by 71% of respondents, while the taste is rated so by 80 % of respondents. a study conducted in Israel among 350 respondents found out that the Israeli consumer is typical considers the point in the product as the dominant force, while the rating of the nutritional value slightly lower (56). when respondents were asked if they are willing to compromise flavor when eating healthy product, 55% responded that or almost never, 35% said yes, and only 10% said they might. Therefore, it is clear that the point is the main criterion influencing the preferences of the people.
analysis of SI is an applied science that measures, analyzes, quantifies and interprets the responses of the senses of sight, smell, hearing, taste and texture products. Science is also known as the "science of people", because it provides product developers essential information needed for business decisions sometimes have an economic effect far-reaching. Although the process of examination of the analysis and sensorimotor seem simple rather, and despite the disadvantages arising from the subjectivity of information, behind the method is about real science. The research complies with all the rules of the experiment and use scientific principles in designing experiments, collecting data, analyzing data and drawing conclusions. The skills required include knowledge of product characteristics, the ability to create terminology sensory, psychological insight, expertise in the field of experimental design, statistics, marketing and more. And sustained effort has been invested in understanding the various factors influencing the choice of food, and there is no doubt that in the future further studies to better understand the behavior and consumer choice processes. This understanding will be implemented quickly in the evaluation sensorimotor, because the main goal is to realize the understanding of the consumer to develop and manufacture the product in the best possible in accordance with expectations. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> sensory testing for development – a historic development
product testing early development stages was not accepted in the past despite the logic of it. First legalized product testing as a standard method in the US Army, both in determining allocations and evaluation of commercial food items purchased for military use. This procedure also slowly room industry. In the – 50 tests included a team of experts alone (57). Late – 60 members of the development and marketing have come to understand that there is a need for testing at an early stage, which will guide the development. Taste tests and consumer surveys have become an official profession in the scientific literature and conferences of the industry (58). In the – 70 tests developed significant business and many companies have started to use sensory analysis for evaluating products in early development stages. Companies long recognized the need and have invested considerable sums of money in teams of experts. At the same time began to use their services of companies specializing in consumer research. Over time, food companies began to rely more and more on the consumer survey revealed rapid, inexpensive, and reliable team of experts, which was limited in its ability to predict the acceptance of the product by the end consumer. In the – 80 sensory tests have gained momentum, and in the 90s they were adopted by most companies in most countries, including Israel. One by one, the managements of food and other industries recognized the importance of sensory analysis in adopting the product among consumers. The tools used have contributed to effective market research and helped in maintaining the quality of existing products and ensure improvement in the chances of success of new products. On the other hand, the use of small teams of experts or discontinued (59). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Consumer testing methods
general considerations for testing, methods by which they are held and analysis of the results include:
1. <strong> consumer </ strong> <strong> </ strong> – According to the prevailing consumer of instruction properly can be used as an expert (60).
2. <strong> test site </ strong> – early versions of Multi studies were done in an unstructured and informal development laboratories, with factory colleagues used the respondents audience. Referred to developers of informal taste test as a guideline only, and therefore did not relate to the briefing tasters or effect tests. In later tests unofficial ones developed three methods for official examination of products:
<span style = "text-decoration: underline;"> taste tests Mall </ span> <span style = "text-decoration: underline;"> (Mall Testing ) </ span> – first, the interviewer establishes a booth / stand area where there is movement of a crowd. Then turning to potential interviewees, filter the relevant people for review, and invites the corresponding participate in the survey.
<Span style = "text-decoration: underline;"> site inspection centers </ span> <span style = "text-decoration: underline; "> (central Location Testing – CLT) </ span> – raising interviewees made in advance, the test takes place in a central location where respondents considering about 8-6 products in random order. The central place enables full control of the preparation conditions. In addition, you can use networked computers to perform the test, so that the final results will be available in near real time.
<Span style = "text-decoration: underline;"> home inspection </ span> <span style = "text-decoration: underline;" > (home Usage Testing – HUT) </ span> – consumer evaluates the product in an environment and atmosphere in which the product is usually consumed. The results are collected by a phone call or an interview with the interviewer. This method can test a number of products as long as making sure that consumers understand the order and frequency of use of the product and the contents of the questionnaire. Acceptable use this test for products that require preparation, and the context it is important to get information about the ease of use and not only appreciation of taste. Also this test suitable for the consumer may get bored after a consumer product returns.
Which of the tests is the best? There is no acceptable rating of "appropriate" or "inappropriate." The method can be achieved through the specific objectives of the study, in addition to considerations of cost / benefit, is the most appropriate. In most cases, a home inspection provides more precise information but it is costly and takes longer than the alternatives. In addition, when you want to test a large number of products. Sometimes not all respondents can provide all the products tested when performing a home inspection. This is a statistical standpoint disadvantage.
3. <strong> What measure </ strong> <strong>? </ strong> – Tests sensors and acceptance of products tests are tools that nature is determined by the investigator using these, and the validity test and questionnaire design and recruitment right. The test should be designed depending on the purpose. For example, there is a difference in planning the test when the goal is to describe the product characteristics (texture, taste, smell, color, etc.) or to determine whether two different products.
4. <strong> Some examples can taste </ strong> <strong>? </ strong> – Some of those in the field say that the consumer is unable to sample more than one or two without getting tired or confused. Other researchers believe participant received proper training can examine a large number of products, especially if it has motivation and is resting between products to ensure continuous sensory sensitivity. Acceptable taste that can seat about 6 to 8 products.
5. <strong> accuracy and reliability </ strong> – without adhering to the rules of the test there is a genuine danger of evidence is not reliable and bias the results. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> longing for food may help </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> nutrition and the role Bhomaostazis, and may arise in response to nutrient deficiency or </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> calories. Longing affected by neurochemical variables, such as levels of endogenous opiates or </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> of serotonin in the brain. During pregnancy and during the menstrual cycle hormonal status is also affected </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> longing. Longing arises during </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> diets monotony and </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> Yes may help in encouraging diversity in the diet </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> understanding food preferences level </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> conceptual </ strong>
developments in the field of academic research to understanding the preferences for food adapted to the business world, are trying to figure out what people really love (research and development) and a communication types to which they respond (marketing). You can measure the degree of acceptance of the prototypes of various product development stages very simply by sensory analysis. Recently, there has been progress in sensory analysis beyond a simple assessment of products in an attempt to define "rules" and "exclusions". These include issues such as
the relationship between the formulation and consumer response
often the question is how consumers will react to change components (such as adding flavors). Do consumers notice the differences when changing gradually the concentration of a single component (eg, sweetener), leaving the other components fixed? Is the sensory profile of varying characteristics at all? Is when increasing the concentration of sweetener product tastes better? Is the increase in concentration of the sweetener expressed by a sensing sweetness or flavor may increase overall? Typically, one can expect food synergistic effect factor complex relationships between components of the product. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> relationship between aspects of sensory product acceptance
when tested group of products with features sensory similar (for example, cereal with crunchy, various color and size) asked the question how these properties affect the affections product? Do cereal crunchy received by the consumer "being better" or "worse" or perhaps crispiness of no importance? When you can find a template that associates a sensory attribute (eg, brittle) Product affection can help developers create better products. This kind of analysis is shown in Figure 1. The horizontal axis shows Flavor (independent variable) and the vertical axis showing the level of affection as ranked by respondents. This chart can easily identify which level of sensory Flavor intensity raises the maximum affection product. It should be emphasized that this level is seen and the concentration Flavor has quantified analytical methods. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> A study conducted in Israel among 350 respondents checked </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> the important factor in choosing health and taste food. The results were taught like American Consumer </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> Israeli consumer typical see-flavored product the most important factor, while the rating of </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> nutritional value is less important </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Figure 1: impact of the concept of </ strong> <strong> – flavor </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> show affection to the product by consumers (61 </ strong> <strong>) </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> analysis of sensory dealing with complex products
highlight the complexity involved in sensory evaluation of the products and to introduce some of the innovative approaches brought to a basic example based on open domestic product a few years ago, which for reasons of intellectual property will not be recognized. The example illustrates some of the steps required in order to reach an understanding concise and practical. The test presented is essentially a simple test for demonstration purposes only. Both types of yogurt (identified here as a product A and product B) were evaluated by 130 consumers in the mall. Presentation of results used in the chart "cobwebs", often used to graphically display the findings. The average value of the sensory properties displayed on delegates coming out of focus centers. this chart can compare the two products, or more, by examining the pattern obtained. This simple approach can present a wide range of sensors findings convincingly easy viewing. AJ Hill 38, L. Heaton-Brown J Psychosomatic Res1994; 38: 801-14. 39. Macdiarmid JL, Hetherington MM. J Clin Psychol Br 1995; 34: 129-38. 40. Rogers PJ. Nutr Res Rev 1995; 8: 243-69. 41. Weingarten HP, Elston D. Appetite 1991; 17: 167-75. 42. Max B. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 1989; 10: 390-3. 43. W Michener, Physiol Behav P. Rozin 1994; 56: 419-22. 44. Schuman M, Gitlin MJ et al. Nerv Mental Dis J 1987; 175: 491-5. 45. Rodin J, Mancuso J et al. Appetite 1991; 17: 177-85. 46. EL Gibson, Desmond E. Appetite 1999; 32: 219-40. 47. Cornell CE, Rodin J et al. 1989 Behav Physiol; 45: 695-704. 48. Blank DM, Mattes RD. Sensory Stud J 1990; 5: 193-202. 49. Cowart B.1989.Relationships of taste and smell across the adult lifespan. In: "Nutrition and the Chemical Senses in Aging" (C. Murphy, WS Cain and DM Hegsted, Eds). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 50. Cain WS, Stevens JC. Ann NY Acad Sci 1989;: 561. 51. IT Cohen, Sherwin BB et al. Hormones and Behavior 1987; 21: 457-70. 52. Roininena K, Tuorila H et al. Appetite 2001; 37: 33-45. 53. Tepper BJ, AC Trail. Food Quality Preference 1998; 9: 267-72. 54. Deliza R, MacFie HJH. Sensory Stud J 1996; 11: 103-28. 55. MR Leary, Kowalski RM. Bulletin Psychol 1990; 107: 34-47. 56. Saguy IS. 2000. Moskowitz Nateev Saguy, Ltd. (Unpublished data). 57. Cairncross SE, Sjostrom LB. Food Technol 1950; 4: 308-11. 58. Moskowitz HR. 1985. "New Direction for Product Testing and Sensory Analysis of Foods". Foods & Nutrition Press, Trumbull, CT. 59. Moskowitz HR, Munoz A et al. 2002. Viewpoints and Controversies. In: "Sensory Science and Consumer Product Testing". Trumbull, Food and Nutrition Press, Inc. Wesport, CT (In Press). 60. Moskowitz HR. Sensory Stud J 1996; 11: 19-35. 61. Moskowitz HR. J Food Sci 1981; 46: 244-8. 62. Green PE, AJ V. Srinivasan Marketing 1978; 45: 17-37.

63. Watzke HJ, Saguy IS. Technol 2001 Food; 55 (5): 174-88. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 4. We thank Ms. Z. Meron for English Rewrite and Mrs. P. Greenberg on constructive comments. </ P>

תזונה וראיה - פריצת דרך בטיפול, ד"ר מיכאלה גולדשטיין, פרופ' ענת לבנשטיין

<p dir = "RTL"> <span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> Dr. Michael Goldstein, Prof. Anat Lowenstein </ span>
<span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> Department of Ophthalmology, Centre Sourasky medical Center, Tel-Aviv </ span> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> age-related macular degeneration </ strong> <strong> (age-related macular degeneration = AMD) </ strong> <strong> is a disease which is the reason why </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> primary </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> vision loss in older age </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> western </ strong> <strong>. </ strong> <strong>
</ strong> <strong> the role of diet in the development of this disease is of considerable interest both among patients </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> and professional literature </ strong> <strong>. </ strong> <strong>
</ strong> <strong> damage photoreceptor cells in the retina caused by oxygen </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> and by free radicals, which are created by the absorption of light rays and processes metabolic </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> normal retinal </ strong> <strong>. </ strong> <strong>
</ strong> <strong> high levels of antioxidants </ strong> < strong> (antioxidants) </ strong> <strong> can </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> significantly reduce the chances of age related Macular degeneration form </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong > advanced </ strong> <strong>. </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> These results were published great article recently published in the journal Archives of Ophthalmology and a breakthrough in this disease (1).
In this article is, people who are at high risk of developing advanced stages of degeneration age-related macular disease, which is the main cause of vision loss in older age in the western world, the chances of developing the disease was reduced by 25% if treated bulk of a combination of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene and zinc. High-risk groups (including people with intermediate stage AMD or advanced AMD in one eye) supplements reduced the chances of vision loss caused by advanced AMD by 19%. Patients without AMD or early AMD, supplements did not bring significant benefit. This study was conducted by the National Institute of Health in the US. In fact, this is the first time clearly proved, any food supplements can be effective in reducing the progression of the disease. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Current therapies today the disease: treatment </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> laser and photodynamic therapy can only stop the progress, but do not take </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> her healing </ strong> <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> age related macular degeneration </ strong> <strong> (age-related macular degeneration = AMD) </ strong>
The first sign and necessary existence the disease is the presence in the retina of yellow deposits under the retina called drusen drusen. these often exist in people over age 60, and can be detected during examination including pupil dilation. drusen in themselves do not usually cause a disturbance in vision, however, whether they are large or there are plenty, AMD progression prospects grow, which can lead to the most severe decline in vision.
the study described three stages of AMD:
1. early AMD. these people have a small drusen or a few medium-sized drusen in one eye or both. In these patients there is no decrease in vision resulting from AMD.
2. AMD Medium Intermediate. These people have many medium-sized drusen, or at least one large drusen in one eye or both. These patients usually have no decreased vision, or that there is only a slight decrease.
3. Advanced AMD. These people in addition to the existence of drusen, they also have atrophied area in the center of vision in the retina, or their blood vessels grow beneath the retina patients (a condition called AMD, "wet"). In these patients there is usually a significant decrease in vision.
Current therapies disease, laser therapy and photodynamic therapy can only stop the progression of the disease, but do not bring her healing (2,3).
In fact is not entirely clear why or how can the size and number of drusen bring to advanced AMD, a condition that impairs central vision, precise, responsible for the daily activities of our daily life such as reading, driving, recognizing faces. One observation is that as drusen more and bigger is more likely to develop one of the forms of AMD (4).
Think, one of the mechanisms for the formation of the disease is retinal damage from free radicals (5). </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> < strong> free radicals – the cause </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> disease </ strong>
free radicals are oxygen molecules which lack an electron, causing them to be unstable. Free radicals react with other molecules in the body, preventing them to function properly. Free radicals are an integral part of our body: we produce them byproduct of the metabolism of oxygen. Because, and in the center of vision in the retina (macula), there is rich in oxygen metabolism, free radicals are formed in which large quantities. Normally, the body's natural defense against these radicals Usually they are received and are carried in the bloodstream by antioxidants (antioxidants), whom the person receiving the food. These antioxidant ingredients stick to the free radicals and neutralize them. An ordinary man faced with a certain amount of free radicals created naturally in the body. However, in modern life are chemicals pesticides, air pollution, exhaust fumes, cigarette smoke, and uncontrolled exposure to the sun, and those also create a large amount of free radicals, which are toxic, and the limited supply of antioxidant substances can not cope with them. Materials for weathering the non-evacuated accumulate so fundus precipitation Fixed who do not evacuate, as stated, by a layer of pigment beneath the retina which protects the retina, disease and retinal degeneration related to age may break out. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Macular Degeneration age-related in moderate </ strong> <strong> (</ strong> <strong> drusen large </ strong> <strong>) </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> macular degeneration </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> age-related advanced stage (growth of blood vessels in patients </ strong> <strong>) </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> the effect of diet on the degeneration Center </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> evidence </ strong>
role of diet in the development of this disease raises both patients and medical literature professional interest. When we talk about nutrition and its effect on macular center of vision associated with age, this is a particularly antioxidants, there are also naturally in various foods and include vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), beta-carotene, alpha-carotene , Likofnim, Lotiain, Ziaksntin, selenium and zinc. Most of them are in green leafy vegetables and corn, kiwi and many vegetables and fruits green, red or yellow. The reason, people think that these agents can be effective is, theoretically these materials can counteract the damage to cells caused by oxygen free radicals. The theory is that damage to the photoreceptor cells in the retina, retinal degeneration associated with age, caused by oxygen and by free radicals, which are created by the absorption of light rays and normal metabolic processes in the retina.
Patients they have already advanced AMD in one eye, the risk of developing advanced AMD also eye second particularly high. The study in question tested a number of antioxidants and vitamins that are known to help control cells and healthy living condition. We looked at the importance of zinc, a mineral concentration, which is the pigment layer beneath the retina (known as a protective layer of the retina) high.
The materials introduced into the study included 500 mg of vitamin C, 400 international units of vitamin E, 14 mg of beta-carotene 80 mg of zinc, and – 2 mg of copper (which is added to prevent copper deficiency can develop when you add a lot of zinc). The study was supported by a commercial company, which supplied the materials and supporting research.
In fact, previous studies have shown that people who eat a diet rich in green leafy vegetables are less likely to develop AMD (6), but the quantities that were taken in this study is very difficult to reach by Nutrition only, without supplements.
The study included 4757 participants, aged 55-80, at 11 centers worldwide. Participants were treated one of four treatments: 1. only 2 zinc and antioxidant vitamins alone 3. 4. combination of both placebo. The effectiveness of the treatment was found only in patients who began the study when they are at high risk of developing advanced AMD, ie those with AMD, "medium" and those with advanced AMD in one eye only. In these patients, when taken in combination of antioxidant vitamins and zinc has been a significant decrease in risk for advanced AMD. Only patients who took zinc had also decreased risk of developing advanced AMD, but this decrease was less significant.
Notably, there may be medical reasons that can prevent people from taking such relatively large amounts of vitamins. For example, beta-carotene has been shown to increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Therefore, each patient receives a recommendation vitamins and zinc ophthalmologists his need to consult with your doctor and see what vitamins really allowed him to take in terms of overall condition.
Arm H"ktrkt "the study found Shlautm supplements had no significance for the development or progression of AMD. A cataract is a cloudiness of the lens of the eye that interferes with vision.
It should be noted that patients also reported a number of side effects. 7.5% of patients, for example, zinc (compared to 5% of the placebo group) developed urinary problems, which required hospitalization. Also, people who received zinc opened more anemic people in the Palestinian condition.
There are two antioxidants more Lotiain and Ziaksntin, their concentration high in the central vision in the retina, and for them in the past, research studies, which included questionnaires for patients and blood levels, which are effective in the prevention of progression age-related macular degeneration, but these materials were excluded last and proven effectiveness is not clear (7).
Due to these factors, the recommendation now is that everyone over age 55 should get an eye examination, including pupil dilation. If found to be relatively advanced stage of the disease (stage it has drusen are large, and changes in pigment) must take the vitamins above, after consultation and approval of the doctor. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL">
<strong> References: </ strong>
1. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Clinical Trial of High-Dose Supplementation With Vitamins C and E, Beta Carotene, and Zinc for Age-Related macular degeneration and vision loss. Report No. 8. AREDS Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119: 1417-36.
2. macular photocoagulation Study Group. Laser photocoagulation for choroidal neovascularization Juxtafoveal: five-year results from randomized clinical trials. Arch Ophthalmol 1994; 112: 500-9.
3. Treatment of Age-related macular degeneration with Photodynamic Therapy (TAP) Study Group. Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with verteporfin: two-year results of 2 randomized clinical trials – TAP report 2. Arch Ophthalmol 2001 ; 119: 198-207.
4. Bressler NM, Bressler SB. Preventive Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 1995; 102: 1206-11.
5. S Beatty, Koh H, M Phil, Henson D, Boulton M. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.
Surv Ophthalmol 2000; 45: 115-34.
6. Seddon JM, Aiani IGA, Sperduto RD , Hiller R, Blair N, Burton TC, Farber MC <Gragoudas ES, Haller J, Miller DT. Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case-Control Study Group. JAMA 1994; 272: 1413-20.
7. RA Bone, Landrum JT, Dixon Z, Chen Y, Llerena CM. In zeaxanthin and lutein the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects.
Exp Eye Res 2000; 71: 239-45. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> 2. Age-related Macular Degeneration advanced stage (growth of blood vessels in patients) </ p>

על טעם ועל ריח – הבסיס הגנטי, פרופ' דורון לנצט

<p dir = "RTL"> <span style = "color: # 3366ff;"> Prof. Doron Lancet, head of the Center for Human Genome named Crown, Hhmhlkh Genetics Molokolrit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot </ span> </ p >
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> our ancestors were fascinated by the chemical senses – taste and smell. The fact that supra taste and smell do not argue "attributed whim of people </ strong> <strong>. </ Strong> <strong> seemed to them that there is something mysterious about the way we identify aromas and flavors, and the mystery of these survived until recently . Many theories have abounded in relation to the question of how to operate cells sense the nose and taste buds language, and no one was able to explain the rework satisfactorily. </ Strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> already in the 19th century it became clear that cells with life body organs are sophisticated chemical recognition mechanisms. It was coined by Emil Fischer, the image of the key and lock the manner in which the protein detects the material attached to it. For example, proteins found in saliva enzyme, amylase, joint uniquely starch in food, but remains completely indifferent to any "key" to another chemical. Unique relationships such recognition also exist regarding the receptors on the cell surface. <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = "2002-10-17T17: 12" > liver and muscles </ ins> receptor protein is powered solely by the hormone insulin, <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = " 2002-10-17T17: 12 "> secreted by the pancreas gland, </ ins> and the brain has a different receptor, sensitive to adrenaline, but not for a number of other chemical compounds. </ p>
<p dir =" RTL "> sense the smell also reveals a significant degree of uniqueness. Indeed, this is a sensory facility has a wide spectrum incredibly, since almost all volatile organic clay evokes the smell. But on the other hand, epithelial cells sense of smell nose can distinguish fine gradations, even between optical isomers. Thus, while Aster such as amyl acetate has the aroma of fruit (banana), Lbnzaldhid fragrant almond, and camphor – smell "health" spicy. Isomer <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = "2002-10-17T17: 12" > right </ ins> Karjuan smell of caraway, while <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = "2002-10-17T17 : 12 "> left </ ins> mint. One of the pioneers of the study of the sense of smell, John <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = "2002-10-17T17: 12" > should </ ins>, claimed to have been in the sixties that these phenomena can be explained, but only via protein receptors equipped with recognition sites that can identify the shape of the scent molecules. He also described seven basic odors represented by receptors with different structures. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> but for many years there was widespread opposition's pioneering ideas should. Difficulties arose because the set "relations between structure – function" of its chemical structure of smell and sense of smell it raises. These relations exist, for example, hormone receptors, and they allow understanding Mngnonm, and even design new drugs that target them. Because of these difficulties, many gave up on the idea that protein receptors are the usual fragrant responsible for recognition. Mechanisms of the alternative proposed included punching tiny lipid membrane surrounding the nerve cells in the sensory, separation chromatography of fragrance materials on the surface of the tissue sensory, or even Transmission infrared light by fragrant, so as to create vibrations unique cells sense. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> olfactory epithelium cells in any sense able to distinguish fine gradations, even between optical isomers. Thus, while Aster such as amyl acetate has the aroma of fruit (banana), Lbnzaldhid fragrant almond, and camphor – smell "health" spicy </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> discoveries in genetics olfactory
</ strong> revolution which restored the protein receptors fore bolts occurred due to the development of molecular genetics in the last twenty years. Notably, this was a classical genetics John gave the clearest clues should first operate receptors that latch after all. This scientist was a pioneer in the study of the unique anosmia (Anosmih specific). This is a common phenomenon among people, which is expressed by virtually every person has the ability to sense smell flaw or another. Should show that in every detail the defect occurred on a limited number of fragrant alike, while its absorption capacity other chemicals absolutely normal. Also, should and others have shown, these defects are inherited. The road was so brief to the conclusion that among the genes that determine the structure and functions of the body, there are olfactory receptor gene predictors protein. In such a mutation in a given cause disappearance of the ability to feel a certain smell. But despite efforts not small, left receptors unknown, and no one was able to isolate the protein level or clone the gene predictors them. <Strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> It was in 1985 discovered fundamental discoveries first which eventually led to deciphering the mysteries of olfactory receptors. Our laboratory the Weizmann began doctoral student, Umberto Pecha study was based on the following idea: If it is difficult to find the receptors, may be, as a preliminary step, to discover the pathway modeling receptors which form the electrical signals coming from the brain. This event offered an analogy to the functioning of receptors for adrenaline. There was known for many years, the mechanism comprises two key proteins: Protein G amplifier used in biochemical and enzyme Adnilil Tziklz, which produces "secondary messenger" – AMP circuits. Indeed, experiments membranes (membrane) olfactory cells of frog discovered, fragrances such as amyl acetate causes a tremendous increase in production above mentioned secondary messenger. Evidence also emerged G protein sharing mechanism absorbing odors. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Six years later served as the basis of this finding to detect the receptors themselves. This is done by Linda Beck, who worked in the laboratory of Richard Axel of Columbia University in New York. This major discovery that <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = "2002-10-17T17: 12" > the </ ins> Haka central role in molecular genetics. Used the idea that each G-protein receptors operators, there are common themes. Using short segments of DNA receptors belong to the G Mfaili- the brain, Dr. Beck was able to "fish" from a library of DNA fragments in the rat dozen sense of smell receptor genes. It turned out quickly that this is a huge family of genes, more than a thousand in number, all one of them is responsible for the absorption of a particular sector of fragrances. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> past ten years. in 2001, published in the prestigious scientific Nature entire sheet describing one of the important achievements of mankind since time immemorial. question decoding the almost complete DNA sequence of the human genome. Israel's contribution to this article specified arrival to the complete set of human genes predictors olfactory receptor. That same year deciphered other laboratories around the world the secrets of receptors tastes sweet and Mr, and the taste receptors mono-sodium glutamate, known in Japan as Aomami. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> mutation – the key to understanding
</ strong > file Info it opened endless possibilities for understanding the chemical senses. This analogy the general area of the study receptors, there allows a different era-genomic deduced sequence of bases of DNA ciphers specific receptor the structure of the encoded protein. Hence, using chemical methods, and importantly, to design a "guided missile" – ie, new drugs – operate specific the protein in question. this revolution in the pharmaceutical industry is already under way, but it will require imagination and boldness also be applied to the world of the conservative little more of the manufacture of smell and taste. this will probably in the near future to plan flavor and aroma, and a new heaven, based on genomic information to receptors relevant. <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> but remains more fundamental question: how can we associate with the receptor or two out of a universe of a thousand receptors position sensing of a particular scent? modern genetics decodes the role of normal given gene by studying the mutations that apply to it. for example, mutations are discovered in people who suffer from deafness, indicate the role of a gene that was so far anonymous, in charge of contact between nerve cells in the inner ear and the brain. Is it possible to return to the cases of anosmia unique studied decades ago by John supposed to, and used for the functional identification of some of the hundreds of odor receptors? Obviously, the first condition for this is the discovery of cases, the person or another, has a specific receptor mutation disable it. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> Although the search field is not the entire genome, but only a group of all olfactory receptors, conquer The operation for searching needle in a haystack. Is it possible to narrow the search to a subset of genes? Last year found that students in my laboratory research and Idan Yoav Gilad Manasseh possible strategy. To formulate it clearly has an in-depth look at a little more complete collection of olfactory receptor genes, it gleaned painstakingly DNA sequencing and data B"criit "genome databases. Discovered unexpectedly, about two-thirds of these genes were controversial neutralize their ability to encode a protein right . genes Russians such as these are called pseudogenes. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> but what use pseudogenes? and, are they destroyed all mankind! genes such do not meet the criteria required, which means that a gene will be deactivated only in the details certain population, and right in all the other people. the question is, then, could it be that some pseudogenes are discovered are polymorphic, meaning that they have more version sequence one? This is the term used by geneticists to mark symptoms such genetic differences exist in the population sensitivity alcoholic beverages or drugs. the strategy that we developed is limited, therefore, that we managed to formulate criteria making it possible to sift Fsoidognim polymorphic among all the rest. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> for testing experimental sites of genetic variation in human in question, we used modern technology imported from Israel just this year. This is a method which can test DNA sequence differences in the population using mass spectrograph. The method allows to discover the genetic fingerprint of thousands of people in a few weeks. When activated technology for 200 people from around the world, were discovered over twenty different sites such millstones, and counting. Search it helped even store commercial data genome, it acquired the Weizmann Institute two years ago. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> It seems, then, that every person in the human population is characterized by a combination certain genes and pseudogenes olfactory receptor. Thus it is possible, Reuben defective genes among several 1,3,8,12,13,17,19 whereas they 3,5,11,13,15,16,20 Simon corrupted. Every detail is characterized by human, therefore, a kind of "bar-code" gene, the black bars are defective genes. Easy to calculate broke a twenty-code stripes create a million combinations, and it is, therefore, also the minimum number of olfactory voted 'versions "in person. </ P>
<p dir =" RTL "> Studies have shown that this phenomenon was reinforced due to evolution wreaked havoc repertoire of olfactory receptors only three years or millions of years. It can be concluded that among apes find that the number of pseudogenes are much smaller. It seems that this occurred due to the fact that in the human species decreased sense of smell somewhat from grace. Despite this, total loss of sense of smell (even that is explored genetic), is quite a blow, and hence whose importance to man. <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = "2002-10-17T17: 12" > Such loss is almost completely eliminates the ability </ ins> enjoy <ins cite = "mailto: Lavi" datetime = "2002-10-17T17 : 12 "> food and beverage, mistakenly attributed to feel the taste. </ ins> for creatures such as dog and mouse, their sense of smell developed much more, there are a few more of the genes are turned off, presumably due to there including greater uniformity of information. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL" > <strong> It turns out that every person in the human population is characterized by a combination of genes and pseudogenes olfactory receptor. Every detail is characterized by a kind of human "bar-code" gene, the black bars are defective genes. Easy to calculate broke a twenty-code stripes create a million combinations, and it is, therefore, also the minimum number of olfactory voted 'versions "in person </ strong> </ p>
<p dir =" RTL "> <strong> Future applications
< / strong> The next step in the long journey in North sense of smell is making a process known as "research associate". This is a method used by research institutions and pharmaceutical companies to detect multi-gene diseases gardens. These diseases, such as hypertension, asthma, diabetes and schizophrenia, are caused by a combination of small changes in many genes. To find out who are the same genes causing the disease of this kind, examining hundreds of genetically different sites, looking for each statistical correlation for the disease. Currently performed in our laboratory research of this kind, in which thousands of people. Aims to find out the correlation between this version or another of the bar-code Smell, and anosmia unique fragrant given. <Strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> For many years lagged study of olfactory receptors and taste different research areas other molecular biology. Twenty years have brought the most significant breakthroughs, and these senses name on the map. Today, there are cases in which the study of these senses is used to flag the camp, for example on human variation pseudogenes, or mechanisms for construction of neural networks. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> companies, the issue of taste and smell are our main concern business, must learn to take advantage of these important developments. Soon the participants in a panel of human and material testing will taste new genetic test, to examine the extent to which they represent the bar code smell characteristic of the target population. It is also possible the development of personal perfumes, medicines analogy-based personality genes, which describe the next development in the medical field. Thus, with the help of modern genetics innovations, we may go back and argue about taste and smell. </ P>

תיאור מקרה

<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Jacob [a pseudonym] is a man of 76 who lives in one of the coastal towns. He is married with children, who all his life difficult profession independently and good living. Now he suffers from severe respiratory smoking in the past. Jacob confined to his home and his accompanying oxygen cylinder, treated many drugs, including steroids, inhalers different drugs high blood pressure and intermittent antibiotics. Recently he was diagnosed with cataract [cataract] but is not analyzed due to the general condition. </ Strong> <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Best Days "knew Jacob 'benefit life "from a night at restaurants, good food and drink in moderation. Now he limits himself to a slice of bread with different spreads, soup, chicken and burgers. He claims he does not enjoy the food and often "complain" about him and complain. Good basic nutritional condition but recently has shown signs of decline. </ Strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> situation deteriorated further during the last hospitalization, which was treated pulmonary infection antibiotic. He refused to eat the food served to him at the hospital, claiming S"laocl tastes like chalk. " His wife brings him lunch every day, but it is not satisfied: "What happened to you, you forgot to cook?" On his return home he was thinner, especially little to eat and eat meals. Recently, he demanded his wife to cook spicy foods and high salt prohibited it. </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Is the problem of Jacob is physical, emotional or environmental?
Why ceased Jacob to eat?
What causes dislocation senses of taste and smell with Jacob?
What are the consequences of mental / environmental of disruption of the senses? </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> Dr. Avner Shahar </ strong> -MPH, MD specialist Medicine and Geriatrics, Hospital Herzfeld-Kaplan Gedera </ p >
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> is Jacob's problem is physical, emotional or environmental?
</ strong> Jacob is a typical case of an elderly man who suffers from a chronic illness. These people live in ecologically fragile and delicate in itself and it is difficult to separate the causes of their problem facing physical mental factors. <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> specifically here seems to me that the problem was physical, at least at first, and then reflected her emotional reaction. When the environment, even her crucial role here (Bet patients in front of the house). </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> why ceased Jacob to eat?
</ strong> You can see two steps downhill eating with Jacob. in the past it was delighted by special diet and spicy. now he limits own menu del mono-tones. this may be the result of a depressed mind, but it is more likely that it reflects damage to the sense of taste and smell affects appetite and food intake. secondarily growing dissatisfaction with the food, behavior changes in the family and depression secondary. <strong> < / strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> What causes dislocation senses of taste and smell with Jacob?
</ strong> as it is hard to separate body in front of people and the environment in such a patient, therefore we can say that there are several causes disruptions are " to. The sense of smell gradually decreases with age and also damaged liver and chronic smoking. In addition, impaired nasal mucosa dryness that involves continuous oxygen therapy and various medications that cause dryness. Even inhalers, including Cromolin and its derivatives and steroids cause disruption of the sense of smell. <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> As for the sense of taste, it suffered damage from drugs drying, also there is a disruption taste drug therapy for high blood pressure, including Kfotn and enzyme inhibitors transformation (ACE ), and other drugs. Antibiotics can cause disruption of flora in the pharynx and covering the tongue affects the taste. </ P>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> What are the consequences of mental / environmental of disruption of the senses?
</ Strong> Jacob lost many pleasures in his life with the outbreak of the disease. He is not mobile, is not working and not spending, which reduces the life experiences that saved him. This loss is even more difficult person "passions" which he liked to exhaust the experiences of the senses. Now he can not walk, his view is limited and does not expect parties and musical performances. Eating remains one of the only experience available to him. Loss of food taste the same place and make him bitter. In desperation, he unloads his anger on his wife away from her more. <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> How can I address the problem?
</ strong> Ads nature of the problem is the first step to dealing it. Sensing garbled person is unaware that only felt the food bland and requires Tblon and salting the rest. Environment does not understand the root of his problem and created friction. You can improve the situation by brushing the tongue gently brush gently and who-salt and lemon. Consult your physician and initiate a "reorganization" more drugs that affect the taste. As for oxygen, can be used in humidity and cream and Vaseline nostrils to prevent damage to the mucous membrane. The very awareness of disruption may reduce the sense of insult the wife and allow for flexibility and openness in assembling a menu, with an emphasis on flavor. <strong> </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> injury senses of taste and smell causes a decrease enjoyment of food and other problems. it can be treated and facilitate the hospital. </ strong> </ p>

פורומים מקצועיים במכון תנובה למחקר

<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> professional forum was held at the Tnuva Research </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> related issue No. 7 of the magazine – women, men and everything in between </ strong> </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> lecture surrounded the subject of three diverse areas:
– women against themselves. Autoimmune Diseases in Women – Dr. Rachel Adato-Levy
– The gender difference in work and relationships – Prof. Ayala Malach-Pines
– women. Attitudes, needs and aspirations – Tamar Biram </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong > women against themselves. autoimmune diseases </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> Men </ strong>
<strong> Dr Rachel Adto- Levy </ strong>, Vice President Medicine, Shaare Zedek medical Center, Chairman of the National Council for women's health
autoimmune diseases are diseases related to the immune system.
Underlying the autoimmune disease is the failure of the ability of the immune system to recognize 'foreign cells' and so the result is that the immune system "confused" and instead play a role against outside intruders, it attacks the inside and causing damage.
autoimmune diseases are more common in women. Survey data from the US (1997) It seems that the prevalence among women is 2.7 times higher than for men.
Multiple Sclerosis 2x common example, rheumatoid arthritis is common to 3x, and lupus According 10-15.
Why do almost all autoimmune diseases are more common among women than men ?
probably Slhormoni Gender plays an important role in regulating the immune system apart and along with them the autoimmune diseases aside.
outbreaks of autoimmune diseases prevalence in situations where occur hormonal changes such as puberty, after childbirth and so on. this is also why the incidence of autoimmune diseases is higher among young women, Aslan levels estrogen higher.
Apparently, estrogen is responsible for the immune system of the woman would be far more effective than the man. woman immune system "stronger" than the man: antibody levels higher antibody response to increased stimuli, cellular response to increased such as transplant rejection and resistance high infection.
On the other hand, are equipped with the immune system better, they are also suffering from a more autoimmune diseases, therefore women being cost effective immune system more prone to developing autoimmune diseases than men. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> <strong> The gender difference at work </ strong> <strong> </ strong> and <strong> relationship </ strong>
<strong> Prof. Ayala </ strong> <strong> </ strong> <strong> Malach-Pines </ strong> School of management, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> "A person can live wonderful if he knows how to work and how to love." – Tolstoy
lives of men and women – including marital ties and work – have changed dramatically in 50 years.
(For example, 40% of women with academic earn as much from the husband, and – third of single parent parents are fathers). But the dominant theories in the field have not changed.
Traditional theories about gender, work and family (gender differences highlighted):
Theories functionalist: Parsons, 1949)): The optimal arrangement is the father works and the mother takes care of the family. The reason for biological advantage – because it is better to take care of the mother gives birth to a child. (The dominant approach in sociology until the end of the 80s)
psychoanalytic theories: "Anatomy is destiny" declared Freud. Critical early years in the development of individual and different effects for the boy and girl because of the anatomical difference between them. Embedded gender differences in childhood (according to de Freud, object relations theory and feminist psychoanalyst as Gilligan and Tz'iodoroao).
Theories sociobiology: the gender differences are the result of parental 'investment difference "
as a result of men and women in competitive therapeutic (winners of evolution)
The problem in all of these theories is that numerous studies indicate that large differences in features and capabilities between men and women, role nontraditional good for both sexes, parenting and relationships are important to men, and important career women.
an alternative theory: the theory of expansion (Rosalind Barnett & Janet Shibley Hyde, 2002)
functions duplicate beneficial psychological and physical well men and women. For example, working women are less depressed, less pressing against children, male parents suffer less, income inequality increases marital satisfaction for men and for women. Double jobs protected.
The reasons:
Brake pressure: in men a good relationship with your partner / children all working pressures
for women challenging work inhibits half Parenting
extra salary: reduces financial pressures that characterize one salary.
Social support: Multiple roles up opportunities Confirm E Social and build support systems social that reduce stress and improve health.
more chance to experience success (even more opportunity to experience failure, discrimination, harassment).
expanding horizons: the possibility to get a perspective of other people on the issues and pressures.
increasing complexity of self – and therefore less possibility of vibration perception of self.
similar experiences of husband and the woman sticks on their interactions and increase the quality of the connection. </ p>
<p dir = "RTL">
<strong> women. Attitudes, needs and aspirations </ strong> <strong> </ strong>
<strong> Tamar Biram </ strong>, director of research and strategy, advertising agency Kesher Barel </ p>
<p dir = "RTL"> in order to deepen the knowledge and understanding of the content areas of working women and mothers of children by the advertising agency, was conducted qualitative research that included meetings are open and spontaneous with more than 150 women in focus groups, along with interviews and a review of media.
the study results indicate several key points:
the central task of women is to maneuver incessant between arenas of life various and different roles – mother, wife, daughter, wife of a career and more. mothers ranked first among all positions.
the mothers and the family provides a range of emotions: on the one hand satisfaction and pride, on the other, frustration and anxiety . Therefore, women express a strong need for recognition on the part of the husband, children, and environmental problems and the huge investment required of them.
the work is recourse debt against your home and family on the one hand, the means for self-fulfillment on the other hand.
big wish of Israeli women – have not just give. gain time that you can devote herself, without being preoccupied with her loved ones. </ p>